Norwegian Gerilja,Heavy water action at Rjukan,1942



The Norwegian heavy water sabotage was a series of actions undertaken by Norwegian saboteurs during World War II to prevent the German nuclear energy project from acquiring heavy water (deuterium oxide), which could be used to produce nuclear weapons.

 In 1934, at Vemork, Norsk Hydro built the first commercial plant capable of producing heavy water as a byproduct of fertilizer production. It had a capacity of 12 t (13 short tons) per year. During World War II, the Allies decided to remove the heavy water supply and destroy the heavy water plant in order to inhibit the Nazi development of nuclear weapons. Raids were aimed at the 60-MW Vemork power station at the Rjukan waterfall in Telemark, Norway.

Prior to the German invasion of Norway on 9 April 1940, the Deuxième Bureau (French military intelligence) removed 185 kg (408 lb) of heavy water from the plant in Vemork in then-neutral Norway. The plant′s managing director, Aubert, agreed to lend the heavy water to France for the duration of the war. The French transported it secretly to Oslo, to Perth, Scotland, and then to France. The plant remained capable of producing heavy water
The Allies remained concerned that the occupation forces would use the facility to produce more heavy water for their weapons programme. Between 1940 and 1944, a sequence of sabotage actions, by the Norwegian resistance movement—as well as Allied bombing—ensured the destruction of the plant and the loss of the heavy water produced. These operations—codenamed "Grouse,"

"Freshman," and "Gunnerside"—finally managed to knock the plant out of production in early 1943.
In Operation Grouse, the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) successfully placed four Norwegian nationals as an advance team in the region of the Hardanger Plateau above the plant.

 Later in 1942 the unsuccessful Operation Freshman was mounted by British paratroopers; they were to rendezvous with the Norwegians of Operation Grouse and proceed to Vemork. This attempt failed when the military gliders crashed short of their destination, as did one of the tugs, a Halifax bomber. The other Halifax returned to base, but all the other participants were killed in the crashes or captured, interrogated, and executed by the Gestapo.
In 1943, a team of SOE-trained Norwegian commandos succeeded in destroying the production facility with a second attempt, Operation Gunnerside. Operation Gunnerside was later evaluated by SOE as the most successful act of sabotage in all of World War II
These actions were followed by Allied bombing raids. The Germans elected to cease operation and remove the remaining heavy water to Germany. Norwegian resistance forces sank the ferry, SF Hydro, on Lake Tinnsjø, preventing the heavy water from being removed







Sprengningen av tungtvannsfabrikken besto av seks operasjoner:
  1. operasjon – The constant Einar
  2. operasjon – GROUSE
  3. operasjon – FRESHMAN
  4. operasjon – GUNNERSIDE
  5. operasjon – Bombingen av Vemork


1. operation - The constant Einar

Those who were with:
Sergeant Einar Skinnarland Einar Skinnarland was 28 March 1942 dropped by parachute over Hardangervidda to obtain information about the heavy water plant at Rjukan. Einar and his brother had lived just a few miles from the heavy water plant almost his entire life. Brother and some of his friends had important jobs in the factory. Einar was an engineer, a very good skier and shooter. After Einar found that heavy water plant sent heavy water to Germany, he reported from the British through a radio station. When the British decided to start up a sabotage campaign against the plant. After this he went up the mountain again and waited for the next group, which was the group GROUSE.

 operation - GROUSE
Those who were with:
Ensign Jens Poulsson (Chairman)
Sergeant Arne Kjeldsrup (second in command)
Ensign Knut Kjeldsrup (wireless operator)
Sergeant Knut Helleberg vanguard was called GROUSE and they were dropped by parachute on Hardangervidda 18 October 1942. When they found out where they were after they had jumped, it turned out that they had landed 160 kilometers from their area of operation. Containers with all their equipment was scattered and they spent two days to find everything. They brought skis, clothing, boots, gaiters, weapons, supplies and a radio so they could communicate with England. Then they went to the area of operations where they were greeted by Einar Leather Countries that had come up to the mountain again. These five should receive and guide the freshman team. Freshman consisted of 34 commandos who would be dropped from a glider over Hardangervidda.
Finn "Nikken" Moe på vakt i en tysk kanonstilling på Krosso
 
 
 operation - Freshman

Those who were with:
34 commandos
flight crew There were those who were to carry out the bombing of the factory. They would come in two gliders. One plane crashed into a mountain on the west coast. Those who died instantly were taken by the Germans, and it was either shot, strangled or poisoned. The second plane reached the landing target, but they did not perceive signals from the ground, so it drove home again. On the way home the engine started to ice. The rope to the glider smoke, and the plane crashed into the ocean. GROUSE group realized that the aircraft had failed to arrive, and they had to survive the winter cold. The only communication they had with the outside world was with SOE in London. When the plane that crashed was searched, they found a map where Vemork was selected. A German soldier went to Vemork to told about the situation. Germans combed the area around the factory, but they did not find any of the Norwegian saboteurs. GROUSE group now had to survive the winter cold, and to survive they had to shoot reindeer and eat everything from meat to the brain. A Horsa gliders. Cockpit Tonneau
 

4. Operation "Gunnerside"

" Those who were with: · Director: Joakim Rønneberg · Nest Commander: Ensign Knut Haukelid · Sergeant Fredrik Kayser · Sergeant Birger · Ensign Kasper Idland · Sergeant Hans Storhaug In January 1943 saboteurs told that the sabotage was planned. sabotage was to attack the heavy water plant and blast heavy water cells. In London they had learned to shoot, melee, and enduring torture. they had studied a complex model of building the famous all saboteurs area very well. Everyone was aware of the danger, and the consequences if the operation fails. Everyone had a poison pill clear if they should be taken. Sabotørene were well trained and were ready for the mission. Sabotørene left plateau 27 February 1943. they followed a ski down to the main road, and pinpointed Vemork. Sabotørene had to cut their way through the block Vemork to 500 m from the station. then they divided into two groups. One group would remain outside and keep watch while the others were coming in through a rocky time for cables. When they arrived they had trouble getting into the factory because the door they had planned to go into was locked. they parted and looked for another entrance. Two of them found a way into the cable shaft, climbed into it and got into the factory. During some few minutes they had been placed explosive charge. they spent 30 seconds instead of 2 minutes. they lit the 2:30 second fuses and ran toward the main entrance. they left a British rifle tag for the operation was conducted by the Allies. Immediately after they had expired, narrow it. Guards thought it was a normal smell because of electrolysis *, so they did not react before the alarm went off, and then saboteurs Alere far up the mountain again. they sent a telegram to London that the operation was successful. The group split up and cracking group fled to Sweden and was brought to London, while the others spread over the plateau. thousands of German soldiers and søkefly was put in to find the saboteurs, but they found them not. explosion destroyed 500 liters of heavy water was a consumption at 3 months but did not destroy the production. * Electrolysis is a method for separating molecules or convert salts of the elements they are composed of, by passing electric current through them. 5th operation (bombing Vemork) Those with: the Allies. After about 3 months of production at Rjukan in full swing again. At the time, Americans had come into the war, and they thought it was very important to stop production. So they decided to blow up the factory completely. 16 November, more than 300 bombers from bases in East Anglia. When they came to Vemork they released 711 bombs. There was lots of fog, poor visibility and contrail, which led to some aircraft had to look to find the target. It was total of 18 bombs hit Vemork plant, and four full matches that destroyed the roof and two generators. There were two full matches hydrogen plant that destroyed the building and the upper floors. pipes had three hits and all the pipes were damaged. Thurs bombers were lost during the operation due to engine failure and 20 men were reported missing. A total of 22 civilians were killed in the attack. reason it was so hard to hit the factory, was that it was in a valley and the planes had to fly quickly over and not get shot down and there was poor visibility. they had to drop the bombs just before the gorge. was not very much damage, but enough damage that the Germans moved the plant to Germany. they did not have enough electricity to resume full production. Operation successful. 6 operation - Lowering of hydro ferry Hydro ferry Sabotørene train carrying heavy water
 
 
 
 
 
 
De nålevende sabotørene (trolig nålevende bildet er tatt i 2007)
Bak fra venstre: Knut Lier Hansen, Arne Kjelstrup, Rolf Sørlie og Hans Storhaug.
Foran fra venstre: Joachim Rønneberg, Fredrik Kayser, Birger Strømsheim og Claus Helberg.
From the movie...http://youtu.be/Iq-4jDuZdzY


Sebrekke radiostasjon mars 1945, Claus Heleberg har kontakt med London
Rukjan


Norwegian soldiers 1945
Hiding place Rukjan 1945
Radiooperater
Jens Anton Poulsson











première of Kampen om tungtvannet on 5 February 1948. Left to right: Knut Haukelid, Joachim Rønneberg, Jens Anton Poulsson (shaking hands with King Haakon VII), Kasper Idland


Rønneberg, Poulsson og Haugland ble dekorert med Krigskorset med sverd, etter at de hadde deltatt i Operasjon Gunnerside, aksjonen som 27. februar 1943 ødela Norsk Hydros tungtvannsfabrikk på Vemork ved Rjukan.
American soldier with us in war at Rukjan
Arnheimtropper besøker Rjukan, mai 1945

Rolf Amdam på Svineroi, mai 1945
Montering av løp på en 20mm tysk luftvernkanon på stadion, mai 1945
Shootingpractise
Slipp 2. juledag 1944




    Amerikanske tropper på Rjukan, Norske jenter på fanget til amerikasnke soldater, mai 1945
films that have been made ​​about heavy water action: It has made ​​two films about heavy water campaign:
Battle of heavy water in 1948. This is the Norwegian version.
The Heroes of Telemark 1965. This is the English version. In the Norwegian version, there are two people playing themselves.




And Wikipedia
 
 

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